The lighting equations were from Shader X7 originally, and they model the Cook-Torrance lighting model which suits all my shading needs.

I had some concerns regarding the blending of different terrain materials (I'm doing a simple slope based material splatting), especially regarding the normals. I read this blog post about blending normals, and it got me thinking about how I should blend the normals of the different terrain materials.

I decided to test out some normal blending functions but none of them gave the expected results... the only thing that worked was when I added the two normals together !

float3 BlendNormals(float3 n1, float3 n2, float factor) { return (normalize(float3(lerp(n1.xy, n2.xy, factor), n1.z*n2.z))); }

I settled on something like the whiteout blend, except I needed to select how much of which normal to choose so I added the lerp; I'm not sure how that affects the accuracy of the result but it gives a decent enough normal for lighting.

Finally frustum culling makes a big comeback, I hadn't touched it since the last version of the terrain that used my home-cooked-ready-to-blow math functions. Well I say that but hey, it

*worked*, so it wasn't broken and I shouldn't have touched it. My fault. But now that I've converted to XNA::Math let's keep rolling with it.
Turns out I was getting weird culling with just ComputeFrustumFromProjection (XNA::Math built-in), and true enough it was getting me a View Space frustum, so I had to convert it to a World Space frustum (transform it by the inverse of the view matrix). That's it, now frustum culling works !

That's an important step for the algorithms I plan on adding soon, which will require the terrain to be rendered multiple times from different perspectives (yes, shadow maps !).

Below you can find the code that computes the correct World frustum using XNA::Math (credit to this guy):

void CDLODTerrain::Prepare(Camera const &camera) { _curtSelection = CDLODQuadTreeTerrain::LODSelection(); XMFLOAT3 camPos; XMStoreFloat3(&camPos, camera.Position()); XNA::Frustum frustum; XNA::Frustum worldFrustum; XMMATRIX projMat = camera.ProjectionMatrix(); ComputeFrustumFromProjection(&frustum, &projMat); XMVECTOR scale, rotation, translation, detView; // The frustum is in view space, so we need to get the inverse view matrix // to transform it to world space. XMMATRIX invView = XMMatrixInverse(&detView, camera.ViewMatrix()); // Decompose the inverse view matrix and transform the frustum with the components. XMMatrixDecompose(&scale, &rotation, &translation, invView); TransformFrustum(&worldFrustum, &frustum, XMVectorGetX(scale), rotation, translation); _curtViewingRange = camera.FarClip(); _quadTree.LODSelect(camPos, worldFrustum, _curtViewingRange, _curtSelection); }

The code is not optimized at all but it's correct and that's all that matters.

And below a video of the result:

Great Article..

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